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June 2015

Volume 1 Issue 1

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Editorial

How Do Affective Temperaments Develop Into Bipolar Disorders?

Koji Hatano , Takeshi Terao*

Affective temperaments are considered to be antecedents or sub-syndromal manifestations of bipolar disorders. It is,however, unknown how these temperaments develop into bipolar disorders. We hypothesize that: just before the onset of bipolar disorder, the left medial frontal gyrus (MFG) of cyclothymic and/or hyperthymic healthy subjects may degenerate and shrink in volume concomitantly with its dysfunction, just after the onset of bipolar disorder, this change may involve the right MFG and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, leading to dysfunction of prefrontal cortex, during the first episode of bipolar disorders, prefrontal dysfunction may involve limbic system, leading to dysfunction of prefrontal-limbic system, and  along with recurrences of bipolar disorders, the prefrontal-limbic system dysfunction may progress. On the basis of our neuroimaging findings of affective temperaments, we believe that these hypotheses warrant further investigation.

 

 

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Research Article

Suicidality – Medical Care and Treatment in a Legal Perspective - A Question of Suicide Prevention
Law Lotta Vahlne Westerhäll*

The present work is enquiring into the legal implications of suicide and suicidality in Swedish health and medical legislation. Most people taking their own lives have been in contact with medical care before committing suicide, most commonly with psychiatric care or with general practitioners

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Research Article

Identifying Depression and Suicide Displays on Twitter: Key Search Terms and Characteristics

Megan Pumper, BA*,Erin Kelleher, Jennifer M. Whitehill, PhD  Megan A. Moreno, MD, MSEd, MPH

Depression is a pervasive health issue, which often goes untreated. The social media website, Facebook, has been examined as a potential innovative tool to identify and engage individuals in treatment. Twitter, another social media website, has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to examine if and how depression and suicide references are being displayed on Twitter.

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Review Article

The Immune and Metabolic Factors of Schizophrenia

Kumlesh K. Dev and Kara E. O’Connell*

Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental illness where involvement of both environmental and genetic triggers is proposed. While a neuronal cell-autonomous view of schizophrenia has been suggested, increasing evidence is pointing beyond intrinsic neuronal dysfunction to help explain reasons for this illness. In particular, the role of immune and metabolic systems, unifying the behavioral and physical factors of schizophrenia is being debated. In this model of disease, abnormal function and communication between cells of the immune, metabolic and/or central nervous systems, in part, play a role.

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Research Article

Attenuation of Anxiety/Depression-like Behaviors and Neuroanatomical Changes Following Quercetin and Rutin Exposure in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Julian Pittman*, Kirsten Henry, Christopher Kelly, Michael Wayne Morris

The flavonoids quercetin and rutin, present in a variety of fruits, vegetables, and medicinal plants such as St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum), are known to have wide-ranging beneficial effects on human health. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanisms-of-action underlying changes in anxiety/depression-related behaviors and the neuroanatomical components affected following exposure to quercetin and rutin in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

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Research Article
Does Major Depression and its Treatment Affect Platelet Activity?

John Piletz, PhD, Edwin Meresh, MD, Debra Hoppensteadt, PhD, Walter Jeske PhD, Jawed Fareed, PhD, James Sinacore, PhD, C. Lindsay Devane, PhD and Angelos Halaris, MD PhD

Serotonergic and adrenergic signals play important roles in major depressive disorder (MDD) and in platelet activation and aggregation. Recent studies have reported the resting level of platelet activation is high in depressed patients . However, not all prior studies agree and it may depend on the choice of measurement. Platelet activation is pivotal in the atherosclerotic process and MDD has been established as a relative risk (RR) factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Complicating the picture is the fact that depression is a risk factor independent of, but often concomitant with, a cluster of other behavioral CVD risk factors: type A personality, life style choices, social isolation, poor medication adherence, smoking, and lack of exercise.

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